Parking Slot Measurement System



  1. Parking Slot Measurement System Chart
  2. Parking Slot Measurement System Conversions
  3. Parking Slot Measurement System Definition
  4. Parking Slot Measurement System Calculator

By
Prof. Madhuri K. Rathi, Mr.Darshan V Patel
Department of Civil Engineering, Pune University, India

Vehicle Access Control may be integrated with parking system revenue generation or can be used only as a parking access control system. Upon entry, a barrier gate arm is in the down position, which requires the Parker to present a valid credential at the Access Control Pedestal or at the Entry BOXX prior to the gate arm opening. The x,y are the quadrilateral 4 points which mark the parking spot. See datasets parkinglot1.txt for example. Required Dlls from OpenCV: opencvcore300.dll, opencvffmpeg300.dll, opencvhighgui300.dll, opencvimgcodecs300.dll, opencvimgproc300.dll, opencvvideoio300.dll. You can play with the threshold in Parking.h.

Abstract
The growing population of India has created many problems one of the challenging ones being car parking which we confront almost every day. Besides the problem of space for cars moving on the road, greater is the problem of space for a parked vehicle considering that private vehicles remain parked for most of their time. While residential projects still escape with designated parking, the real problem lie with commercial spaces many a time which is overcome by taking extra open spaces to park.

Multi-level Parking systems for sometime have provided relief since they come with a number of advantages – optimal utilisation of space, lower maintenance and operational cost, lower construction cost, secure and environment-friendly nature, comfortable for the drivers, cost saving for builders by saving height or depth. Multiple Level Car Parking Systems are much in vogue a method of automatically parking and retrieving cars that typically use a system of pallets and lifts and signalling devices for retrieval. They serve advantages like safety, saving of space, time and fuel space but also need to have an extra and a very detailed assessment of the parking required, space availability and traffic flow.
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Parking

The growing population of India has created many problems – one of the challenging ones being car parking which we confront almost every day. Besides the problem of space for cars moving on the road, greater is the problem of space for a parked vehicle considering that private vehicles remain parked for most of their time. Roads are being built for cars to ply but are we also giving the vehicles enough space to park?. Parking is one of the major problems that is created by the increasing road track. It is an impact of transport development. The availability of less space in urban areas has increased the demand for parking space especially in areas like Central business district.


1.2 Parking studies
Before taking any measures for the betterment of conditions, data regarding availability of parking space, extent of its usage and parking demand is essential. It is also required to estimate the parking fares also. Parking surveys are intended to provide all these information. Since the duration of parking varies with different vehicles, several statistics are used to access the parking need.

1.3 Parking statistics
1. Parking accumulation It is defined as the number of vehicles parked at a given instant of time.
Normally this is expressed by accumulation curve. Accumulation curve is the graph obtained by plotting the number of bays occupied with respect to time.

2. Parking volume Parking volume is the total number of vehicles parked at a given duration of time. This does not account for repetition of vehicles.

3. Parking load Parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the number of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. It is expressed as vehicle hours.

4. Average parking duration It is the ratio of total vehicle hours to the number of vehicles parked.

5. Parking turnover It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in duration to the number of parking bays. This can be expressed as number of vehicles per bay per time duration.

6. Parking index Parking index is also called occupancy or efficiency. It is defined as the ratio of number of bays occupied in time duration to the total space available. It gives an aggregate measure of how effectively the parking space is utilized. Parking index can be found out as follows
Parking index = parking load/parking capacity × 100

1.4 Effects of parking
Parking has some effects like congestion, accidents, pollution, obstruction to fire-fighting operations etc.

1. Congestion Parking takes considerable street space leading to the lowering of the road capacity. Hence, speed will be reduced, journey time and delay will also subsequently increase. The operational cost of the vehicle increases leading to great economical loss to the community.

2. Accidents Careless maneuvering of parking and unparking leads to accidents which are referred to as parking accidents. Common type of parking accidents occur while driving out a car from the parking area, careless opening of the doors of parked cars, and while bringing in the vehicle to the parking lot for parking.

3. Environmental pollution They also cause pollution to the environment because stopping and starting of vehicles while parking and unparking results in noise and fumes. They also aced the aesthetic beauty of the buildings because a car parked at every available space creates a feeling that building rises from a plinth of cars.

4. Obstruction to firefighting operations Parked vehicles may obstruct the movement of firefighting vehicles. Sometimes they block access to hydrants and access to buildings.


Measurement1.5 Types of ParkingParking
1. On street parking
On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5× 2.5 m and that for a truck is 3.75× 7.5 m.

2. Off street parking
Off street parking means vehicles are parked off the street itself. This will be usually controlled by commercial agencies itself.

3. Parallel parking
The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or un parking the vehicle. Hence, it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. However, it consumes the maximum curb length and therefore only a minimum number of vehicles can be parked for a given kerbed length. This method of parking produces least obstruction to the on-going track on the road since least road width is used.

4. 30 parking
In thirty degree parking, the vehicles are parked at 30 with respect to the roinad alignment. In this case, more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking. Also there is better maneuver-ability. Delay caused to the track is also minimum in this type of parking.

5. 45 parking
As the angle of parking increases, more number of vehicles can be parked. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking, more number of vehicles can be accommodated in this type of parking.

6. 60 parking
The vehicles are parked at 60 to the direction of road. More number of vehicles can be accommodated in this parking type.

7. Right angle parking
In right angle parking or 90parking, the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. Although it consumes maximum width kerbed length required is very little. In this type of parking, the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road track particularly if the road width is less. However, it can accommodate maximum number of vehicles for a given kerbed length.



1.6 Multiple Level Car Parking

It is a building (or part there hereof) which is designed specifically to be for Automobile Parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place.

Is essentially a Stacked Car Park
“Multilevel Car Park” – Term Originated in UK, in US it is called a “Parking Structure” Types
1. Manually operated (non mechanized-with ramps)
2. Mechanized (Classified in different type based on technology)
• Mini
• Puzzle
• Tower
In order to accommodate the large volume of vehicles, small cities and towns must develop their infrastructure. One solution may be a multi-level car parking system to maximize car parking capacity by utilizing vertical space, rather than expand horizontally. With land in metros and ‘a’ grade cities becoming scarce and dearer, and plots getting smaller, conventional parking is proving infeasible.

Salient Features
• Dynamic peak hour management to configure the system in line with the demand pattern. Intelligent buffering system offering zero wait time for the public.
• Flexible, scalable and modular design to accommodate wide range of layout and capacities and offers seamless capacity addition.
• Simple design by the way of electrical push pulls mechanism with direct drives.
• Use of electrical drives to optimize power consumption.
• Intelligent emergency management system via. manual override option.


Advantages
• Space effective – space savings upwards of 70 percent.
• Freeing the space at ground level for better commercial use.
• Reduced total cost of ownership.
• Environmental friendly as ramps are avoided.
• Higher throughput and faster operations (capability to handle 40 to 60 cars an hour)

1.7 Necessity of MLCPS
1.7.1 Optimal utilization of space

Mechanical car parking system is a method of parking and retrieving cars by using pallets and lifts. It thus removes the need for lengthy drive ways and ramps, accommodating maximum cars in minimum space.

1.7.2 Can be constructed on minimum available space
MLCPS is flexible enough to solve varied parking problems. It can be sited above or below the ground or a combination of both and designed to accommodate any number of cars.

1.7.3 Lower construction cost
MLCPS are cost effective in terms of construction cost. MLCPS are delivered pre-fabricated which are assembled on site. As the system is operated automatically, added expenses of underground parking such as building structure, providing lighting and security are avoided.

1.7.4 Low maintenance and operational cost
Operating cost is low since mechanical car parking systems requires less energy to run. There is no need for energy intensive ventilating systems as the cars are not being driven inside the parking lot. Cladding can be specially selected to match the building’s facade.

1.7.5 Safety of vehicle
MLCPS provide complete safety to a vehicle as parked cars are not accessible to anyone else. Damages or a dent to the car is avoided while parking through narrow drive ways.

1.7.6 Environment friendly
Environmentally, mechanized car parking has much to offer. One of the greatest benefits related to conventional underground or open space parking, is the saving of ground space. Outdoor space saved can be put to good use with gardens and landscaping or additional buildings. It also significantly reduces noise and other pollutants.

1.7.7 Benefit to a driver
Car driving now can become a pleasant experience. Mechanical car parking systems makes parking easier and less stressful as the driver does not have to drive through the entire parking lot looking for a place to park, nor do they have to attend the car when it is parked, thus saving a lot of time. Difficulty in parking in a tight corner is also eliminated.

1.7.8 Benefit to builder
By using MLCPS, floor area and the volume of the stilt/ garage can be used much more efficiently. It reduces the space needed to park the same number of cars or allow car parking where previously there would have been no room. This in turn means more financial gains by saving precious real estate space.

METHODOLOGY
2.1 Data collection methodology

The most common parking surveys conducted are in-out survey, fixed period sampling and license plate method of survey.

2.1.1 In-out survey
In this survey, the occupancy count in the selected parking lot is taken at the beginning. Then the number of vehicles that enter the parking lot for a particular time interval is counted. The number of vehicles that leave the parking lot is also taken. The final occupancy in the parking lot is also taken. Here the labor required is very less. Only one person may be enough. But we wont get any data regarding the time duration for which a particular vehicle used that parking lot. Parking duration and turn over is not obtained. Hence we cannot estimate the parking fare from this survey.

2.1.2 Fixed period sampling
This is almost similar to in-out survey. All vehicles are counted at the beginning of the survey. Then after a fixed time interval that may vary between 15 minutes to i hour, the count is again taken. Here there are chances of missing the number of vehicles that were parked for a short duration.

2.1.3 License plate method of survey
This results in the most accurate and realistic data. In this case of survey, every parking stall is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes or so and the license plate number is noted down. This will give the data regarding the duration for which a particular vehicle was using the parking bay. This will help in calculating the fare because fare is estimated based on the duration for which the vehicle was parked. If the time interval is shorter, then there are less chances of missing short-term parkers. But this method is very labor intensive.

Parking Slot Measurement System

2.2 What is a Parking Analysis?
A Parking Analysis is a study to determine that the total parking demand for a particular use, per the may have a Site Plan showing all tenant spaces andZoning Ordinance Section 20.90.060 and Table 20-190, does not exceed the total supply of available parking spaces on a subject site. A Parking Analysis parking analyses that were required for other tenants is required for any project where there is a change of use that increases or intensifies the parking demand. from the property owner or leasing agent, the Examples of changes that may increase or intensify the parking demand can include a retail/commercial use change to a restaurant, or a new tenant with is more intensive uses in an industrial center.

2.3 When is a Parking Analysis Required?
A Parking Analysis is required when a new building development is proposed on a site. A Parking Analysis is also commonly required during the review of tenant improvements for Plan Check in the Building Division where a more intensive use(s) is proposed that may increase the parking demand. In these cases, there is a need to verify the adequacy of existing on-site parking and Development Services staff will notify the applicant that a detailed Parking Analysis is required. Uses that typically require a more detailed Parking Analysis include (but are not
limited to): restaurants, bars, coffee shops, health studios, vehicle repair shops, churches, and industrial use. Simpler parking summaries can prepared on many other type of development proposals.

2.4 What is Required for Submitting a Parking Analysis?
A detailed Parking Analysis submittal typically consist of:

A Site Plan of the legal property (a recorded parcel/lot) identifying where the proposed project is located, and showing all existing uses/tenant spaces and all existing parking space locations.
A Parking Analysis Form or spreadsheet matrix (available from the City and signed by the property owner or owner’s represent that
1. Names all existing/proposed uses and lists each tenant space address
2. Lists eighty-five percent (85%) of each tenant’s total building square footage
3. Lists the parking requirements (per the Zoning Code requirements) for each existing and proposed tenant
4. Lists dining and seating counts for all restaurant, bar, and coffee shop uses
5. Lists an accurate total number of all existing parking spaces on-site
6. Provides the total difference (if any) between the number of parking spaces required versus the number of parking spaces that are existing on-site.

CONCLUSIONS
As the land in metropolitan cities and other higher order cities becoming scarce and dearer and plots getting smaller conventional parking is proving infeasible. The solution for the parking requirements is the multi-level car parking system to maximize car parking capacity by utilizing vertical space, rather than expanding horizontally. The most popular choice in terms of technology preferred is automated (lift based) selected by nearly 70% of the users.

From Case Study Of PARI we can Conclude that :
• Auto Car Parking System reduces parking and retrieval time. Saves time spend in searching for empty parking slots and time spend is searching the parked car. Retrieval on average is 2 to 3 minutes.

• Auto Car Parking System is environment friendly. As the car engines are shut during the automatic parking process there is no pollution.

• Auto Car Parking System is cost effective in terms of maintenance over the conventional parking systems.

• Auto Car Parking System provides car parking solutions accommodating maximum cars in minimum space.

• Auto Car Parking System improves financial viability of commercial and residential developments.


References
• Hitendra.G.Wasnik,Optimal Automatic Car Parking System for Indian Environment, Indian Streams Reserach Journal Vol.1,Issue.X/Nov; 11pp.1-4, ISSN:-2230-7850
• Anumita Roychowdhury,Sarojini Nagar Parking Report,Delhi..
• Kamrul Hassan, Md. Mustafizur Rahman, Multi-Level Automatic Car Parking With IR Card Security System, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 12, December-2012 1 ISSN 2229-5518.
• Mrs.Priyanka. Kolhar,OffstreetParking Management Plan for Dharwad City, Karnataka, India,Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN0976-7916.

Parking Slot Measurement System Chart


Parking slot measurement system calculator• Santheesh G,Intelligent Parking lot Management System-Implementation Challenges,CDAC.
• Meghna Shivastava & Prof.Dr.Sanjay Gupta, Planning For MLCP Facilities in Metropolitan City of Delhi.

We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Prof Madhuri Rathi for submitting this very useful research paper on “Different types of Parking Spaces and Multiple Level Car Parking” to us. We are sure this will be very helpful to those seeking more information on the growing need of multiple level parking.

Marked parking spaces
Angled parking spaces

A parking space is a location that is designated for parking, either paved or unpaved. It can be in a parking garage, in a parking lot or on a city street. The space may be delineated by road surface markings. The automobile fits inside the space, either by parallel parking, perpendicular parking or angled parking.

Depending on the location of the parking space, the time allowed to park may be fixed by regulation, and a fee may be required to use the parking space. It may be designated for free parking. When the demand for spaces outstrips supply vehicles may overspill park onto the sidewalk, grass verges and other places which were not designed for the purpose.[1]

Patterns[edit]

For most motorised vehicles, there are three commonly used arrangements of parking spaces—parallel parking, perpendicular parking, and angle parking. These are self-park configurations where the vehicle driver is able to access the parking independently.

Parallel parking[edit]

With parallel parking of cars, these are arranged in a line, with the front bumper of one car facing the back bumper of an adjacent one. This is done parallel to a curb, when one is provided. Parallel parking is the most common mode of streetside parking for cars. It may also be used in parking lots and parking structures, but usually only to supplement parking spaces that use the other modes.

Perpendicular parking[edit]

Bombala's (perpendicular) back-in parking style.

With perpendicular parking, also known as bay parking, cars are parked side to side, perpendicular to an aisle, curb, or wall. This type of car parking fits more cars per length of road (or curb) than parallel parking, and is therefore commonly used in car parking lots and car parking structures.

Vehicles parked on the side of a street in Leipzig, Germany

Often, in car parking lots using perpendicular parking, two rows of parking spaces may be arranged front to front, with aisles in between. If no other cars are blocking, a driver may perform a 'pullthrough' by driving through one parking space into the connecting space to avoid having to reverse out of a parking space upon their return.

Sometimes, a single row of perpendicular car parking spaces is marked in the center of a street. This arrangement eliminates reversing from the manoeuvre; cars are required to drive in forwards and drive out forwards.

Angle parking/echelon parking[edit]

Parking Slot Measurement System Conversions

Angle parking along the Southsea seafront, England.

Angle parking, known as echelon parking in Britain, is similar to perpendicular parking for these vehicles, except that cars are arranged at an angle to the aisle (an acute angle with the direction of approach). The gentler turn allows easier and quicker parking, narrower aisles, and thus higher density than perpendicular parking. While in theory the aisles are one-way, in practice they are typically wide enough to allow two cars to pass slowly when drivers go down the aisles the wrong way.

Angle parking is very common in car parking lots. It may also be used in streetside car parking in the U.S. when there is more width available for car parking than would be needed for parallel parking of cars, as it creates a larger number of parking spaces. Some cities have utilized angled parking on-street (as compared to off-street parking facilities). This has been done mostly in residential, retail and mixed use areas where additional parking compared to parallel parking is desired and traffic volumes are lower. Most angled parking is design in a head-in configuration while a few cities (Seattle, Portland, Baltimore, and Indianapolis are examples) have some back-in angled parking (typically on hills or low traffic volume streets).

Angle parking is considered dangerous by cycling organisations, especially in the head-in configuration, but unwelcome in either form. When comparing to parallel parking:

  1. There is a significant risk to cyclists from vehicles reversing out, as approaching bicycles are in the blind spot of the reversing and turning vehicles.[2]
  2. Longer vehicles project further into the road; this can inconvenience/endanger other road users,
  3. The 'surplus' road space which enables angle parking could also be used for bicycle lanes.

Hence organisations such as the Cyclists Touring Club are usually opposed to all proposed echelon parking schemes, though there are some alternatives, such as back-in angle parking (slanted the 'wrong' way, with the driver reversing into the space, rather than reversing out), which can overcome many of the issues of safety.

Other parking methods[edit]

Besides these basic modes of motor vehicle parking, there are instances where a more ad hoc approach to arranging motor vehicles is appropriate. For example, in parts of some large cities, such as Chicago and Bangalore, where land is expensive and therefore parking space is at a premium, there are formal and informal parking lots for motor vehicles where the driver leaves the keys to the vehicle with an attendant who arranges vehicles so as to maximize the number of vehicles that can be parked in the lot. Vehicles may be packed up to five vehicles deep in combinations of perpendicular and/or parallel parking with limited circulation aisles for the parking attendant. Such arrangements are known as attendant parking. When the lot or facility is provided to serve the customers of a business, it is considered valet parking.

Inner city parking lots are often temporary, the operators renting land which is vacant pending the construction of a new office building. Some inner city lots are equipped with individual lifts, allowing cars to be stored above each other.

Another ad hoc arrangement is tandem parking. This is sometimes done with residential motor vehicle parking where two motor vehicles park nose-to-end in tandem. The first motor vehicle does not have independent access, and the second motor vehicle must move to provide access. As with attendant parking, the purpose is to maximize the number of motor vehicles that can park in a limited space. Formalised tandem parking will sometimes be sanctioned by local planning authorities for staff parking arrangements require additional parking in limited spaces.

Marks and space size[edit]

Street with spaces marked for parallel parking

Parking Slot Measurement System Definition

Parking lot in Épône railstation (France).

In parking lots (car parks in British English), parking is allowed only where marked.[3]

In the US, minimum width standards of parking spaces usually range from 8.5 to 9.0 feet (2.6–2.7 m). Angled and perpendicular spaces may need to be wide to allow doors to open, while parallel parking spots may be narrower on low-traffic neighborhood streets.

Because the boundary between parking space and driving area is not always well-defined, the length of a parking space is more difficult to establish. However, most angled and perpendicular spaces are considered to be between 10 and 18 feet (3.0–5.5 m) in length. In the United States, due to vehicles being larger on average than some other countries[citation needed], a parking space 10 feet (3.0 m) deep is uncommon and most parking spaces will be within 16 to 20 feet (4.9–6.1 m), with 19 feet (5.8 m) feet deep being the standard DOT recommended depth for standard perpendicular parking[citation needed]. Parallel parking spaces typically range from 20 to 24 feet (6.1–7.3 m) long.

During construction, the specific dimensions of a parking space are decided by a variety of factors. A high cost of land will encourage smaller dimensions and the introduction of compact spaces.[4] Many garages and parking lots have spaces designated for a Compact car only. These spaces are narrower than traditional spaces, thus allowing more cars to park.[5]

According to French standard 'Norme NF P 91-100', minimum width of parking spaces range from 2.20 to 2.30 metres (7.2–7.5 ft) (See fr:Marquage du stationnement en France). Narrow parking spaces such as in Vevey, Switzerland, might make opening the door difficult in a larger vehicle.

Larger cars are an issue when the size of the bay is fixed. Automobile associations warn of this issue.[6] A Swiss Association regulating parking space wants to consider this issue for 2016. [needs update]

In the United Kingdom, the recommended standard parallel bay size is 2.4 metres (7.9 ft) wide by 4.8 metres (16 ft) long. Recently there has been some controversy about most UK parking spaces being too small to fit modern cars, which have grown significantly since standards were set decades ago.[7]

In Australia, the dimensions are defined in AS2890 and are 2.4 m wide by 5.4 m long.[8]

Barriers[edit]

Paid bike parking in Shibuya, Tokyo

Parking spaces commonly contain a parking chock (wheel stop), which is used to prevent cars from pulling too far into the space and

  • obstructing a neighboring parking space, curb, or sidewalk.
  • contacting with and then damaging a building wall.

This barrier is usually made of concrete and will normally be a horizontal bar to stop the tires from moving forward or a vertical bar that may cause damage to the vehicle if contact is made. In a parking garage, the barrier will often be a concrete wall.

Parking spaces for the disabled[edit]

An example of a disabled parking place.

Some parking spaces are reserved as handicapped parking, for individuals with disabilities. Handicapped parking spaces are typically marked with the International Symbol of Access, though in practice, the design of the symbol varies widely.[9]

In the United States the Access Board provides guidelines on parking spaces.[10][11]

Women's parking spaces[edit]

In some countries, women's parking spaces have been established in more visible spots to reduce the chance of sexual attacks,[12] facilitate parking for women, or to provide spaces that are closer to shopping centers or employment.[13][14]

US curb markings[edit]

Curb markings in the United States are prescribed by the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD).[15] Local highway agencies may prescribe special colors for curb markings to supplement standard signs for parking regulation. California has designated an array of colors for curb regulations. A white curb designates passenger pick up or drop off. The green curb is for time limited parking. The yellow curb is for loading, and the blue curb is for disabled persons with proper vehicle identification. The red curb is for emergency vehicles only - fire lanes (no stopping, standing, or parking). In Oregon and Florida, the yellow curb is utilized to indicate no parking. In Georgia either red or yellow can be used to indicate no parking. In Seattle, Washington, alternating red and yellow curb markings indicate a bus stop.

See also[edit]

  • Parking chair (for snowstorms)

References[edit]

Parking Slot Measurement System Calculator

  1. ^'Possible kerb-space management solutions'. Dartford Borough Council. Archived from the original on 2012-02-21. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  2. ^UK Department of Transport Cycle Infrastructure Design
  3. ^'Parking spaces'. Homes for Students - HOAS. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  4. ^A Comprehensive Menu of Solutions to Parking Problems Victoria Transport Policy Institute
  5. ^'Houston Parking Lot Line Striping, Parking Lot Maintenance'. Archived from the original on 2013-11-05.
  6. ^Pierren, Sophie (2012-09-09). 'Places de parc trop petites pour grosses voitures'. 20 Minutes (in French). Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  7. ^'UK parking bays too small'. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  8. ^'AS_NZS 2890: Parking Facilities Set'. SAI Global. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  9. ^www.youcantparkhere.com A gallery of handicapped parking symbols.
  10. ^'ADAAG - United States Access Board'.
  11. ^Revised Draft Guidelines for Accessible Public Right-of-Way and ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^FAQ of the German Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency (archived)
  13. ^Will High-Heel-Friendly Streets Keep Seoul's Women Happy?, Time, 2009
  14. ^Le Monde (fr) article about women's parking spaces in China
  15. ^Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices, FHWA, 2009, Section 3B-23.

External links[edit]

Parking Slot Measurement System
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Parking.
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